CHI 2011 Workshop

Overview | Call for Papers | Schedule | Papers | Participants | Organizers


Update, April 18, 2011: The paper “Play Society Research Project” by Kuikkaniemi et al. has been replaced with a more recent version (also in the bundle).

The “introductory papers” below are the original extended abstract for the workshop and a workshop paper we organizers wrote to wrap our heads around the term “gamification” – and we sincerely look forward to be challenged on that. We’ve collected all papers in one handy file for your convenience:

Introductory papers

Deterding, Sebastian; Sicart, Miguel; Nacke, Lennart; O’Hara, Kenton; Dixon, Dan
Gamification: Using Game Design Elements in Non-Gaming Contexts
“Gamification” is an informal umbrella term for the use of video game elements in non-gaming systems to improve user experience (UX) and user engagement. The recent introduction of ‘gamified’ applications to large audiences promises new additions to the existing rich and diverse research on the heuristics, design patterns and dynamics of games and the positive UX they provide. However, what is lacking for a next step forward is the integration of this precise diversity of research endeavors. Therefore, this workshop brings together practitioners and researchers to develop a shared understanding of existing approaches and findings around the gamification of information systems, and identify key synergies, opportunities, and questions for future research.
Paper | Presenting authors: Deterding, Nacke, O’Hara, Dixon

Deterding, Sebastian; Khaled, Rilla; Nacke, Lennart E.; Dixon, Dan
Gamification: Toward a Definition
This paper proposes a working definition of the term gamification as the use of game design elements in non-game contexts. This definition is related to similar concepts such as serious games, serious gaming, playful interaction, and game-based technologies.
Paper | Presenting authors: Deterding, Khaled, Nacke, Dixon

Workshop papers

Antin, Judd, Churchill, Elisabeth F.
Badges in Social Media: A Social Psychological Perspective
Representing achievements as badges or trophies is a standard practice in online gaming. Awarding badges has also become a key ingredient in “gamifying” online social media experiences. Social systems such as Foursquare, StackOverflow, and Wikipedia have  popularized badges as a way of engaging and motivating users. In this paper we deconstruct badges and present five social psychological functions for badges in social media contexts: goal setting, instruction, reputation, status/affirmation, and group identification. We argue that future research should further explore these five functions and their application in specific contexts.
Paper | Presenting authors: Antin

Brewer, Robert S.; Lee, George E.; Xu, Yongwen; Desiato, Caterina; Katchuk, Michelle; Johnson, Philip M.
Lights Off. Game On. The Kukui Cup: A Dorm Energy Competition
Our research seeks to investigate the relationships among energy literacy, sustained energy conservation, and information technology support of behavior change through an advanced dorm energy competition to take place in fall 2011. Game design techniques are used to attract competition participants, keep them engaged, and have a lasting impact in their energy use behavior through retained knowledge of energy obtained via the game environment.
Paper | Presenting authors: Brewer

Cheng, Li-Te; Shami, Sadat; Dugan, Casey; Muller, Michael; DiMicco, Joan; Patterson, John; Rohall, Steven; Sempere, Andrew; Geyer, Werner
Finding Moments of Play at Work
In this position paper, we propose that an important consideration for applying gamification within the enterprise is identifying the appropriate time for manifesting game elements into the work context – the “moment of play.” We reflect on our experiences with gamification projects within an enterprise. We call for further research into understanding moments of play in community, team, and individual enterprise experiences, notably synchronous team experiences.
Paper| Presenting authors: Geyer

Cheung, Gifford
Consciousness in Gameplay
Presented here are a set of design dimensions for game media. Principles are drawn from sociological theory about human action and phenomenological perspectives of technology. These dimensions are applied to understanding game elements in non-games.
Paper | Presenting authors: Cheung

Choe, Sungwon Peter; Jang, Hyukjae; Song, Junehwa
Roleplaying gamification to encourage social interactions at parties
We discuss our ongoing work in using game techniques to encourage positive social interactions at parties. We relate our observations of party interaction behavior among guests and discuss game design considerations.
Paper | Presenting authors: Choe

Cramer, Henriette; Ahmet, Zeynep; Rost, Mattias; Holmquist, Lars Erik
Gamification and location-sharing: some emerging social conflicts
Location-sharing services such as foursquare are a prominent example of commercial apps that use gamification to increase user engagement. These gamification elements however have to coexist with a plethora of usage motivations. We here present selected observations on emerging conflicts between gamification elements and other usage motivations for location-sharing. We argue gamification needs to take into account the social context in which services operate and that conflicts within this context can be detrimental, but can also add to playfulness.
Paper | Presenting authors: Ahmet

Deterding, Sebastian
Situated motivational affordances of game elements: A conceptual model
An increasing number of applications use game design elements to motivate user behavior in non-game contexts. Yet current models of video game motivation do not connect to the granular level of single design elements. Similarly, they do not address the social situation of game play. To address this lack, the concept of situated motivational affordances is introduced to conceptualize the motivational pull of single game design elements in varying contexts.
Paper | Presenting authors: Deterding

Diakopoulos, Nicholas
Design Challenges in Playable Data
Work published this year at CHI has introduced the notion of game-y information graphics which take raw datasets from sources such as and create playable visualizations by adding elements of goals, rules, rewards, and mechanics of play. In this position paper, I would like to expound on and explore the design difficulty associated with creating a challenging and balanced game experience when drawing on raw datasets as input for the construction of a game.
Paper | Presenting authors: Diakopoulos

Dixon, Dan
Player Types and Gamification
This paper presents a brief history of the concept of player types starting with Bartles’s work on MUDs and continuing to more recent, empirical research. Player types are not a defined concept and any categorization of players or users needs to occur within the context of a particular application or domain. Play-personas are suggested as a useful tool that can be used to put player type research into practice as part of the design process of gamified systems.
Paper | Presenting authors: Dixon

Gerling, Kathrin M.; Masuch, Maic
Exploring the Potential of Gamification Among Frail Elderly Persons
The application of game elements a in non-gaming context offers a great potential regarding the engagement of senior citizens with information systems. In this paper, we suggest the application of gamification to routine tasks and leisure activities, namely physical and cognitive therapy, the gamification of real-life activities which are no longer accessible due to age-related changes and the application of game design elements to foster social interaction. Furthermore, we point out important chances and challenges such as the lack of gaming experience among the target audience and highlight possible areas for future work which offer valuable design opportunities for frail elderly audiences.
Paper | Presenting authors: Gerling

Hoonhout, Jettie; Meerbeek, Bernt
Brainstorm triggers: game characteristics as input in ideation
In this paper some of our explorations regarding game applications as a model for engaging consumer product interactions will be presented. We systematically looked at what makes games appealing, based on an analysis of the literature and on studies we conducted with games ourselves. What we report here is how we used the outcome of these efforts as a starting point for a set of ideation (brainstorm) guidelines regarding ‘affectability’ when working on novel product concepts.
Paper | Presenting authors: Hoonhout

Huotari, Kai; Hamari, Juho
“Gamification” from the perspective of service marketing
The developments in game industry and service design have led to an increased use of so-called game mechanics to drive customer retention and engagement outside the realm of, what can traditionally be seen as, games. This act of enhancing services with game-like features has largely been coined as “gamification”. The phenomenon has been thus far discussed atomically, without ties to existing literature on service marketing, to which the goals of gamification are strongly related to. This paper presents a definition for gamification from the perspective of service marketing and lays ground for future studies on gamification and marketing.
Paper | Presenting authors: Hamari, Huotari

Inbar, Ohad; Tractinsky, Noam; Tsimhoni, Omer; Seder, Thomas
Driving the Scoreboard: Motivating Eco-Driving Through In-Car Gaming
Eco-driving is one way in which car emissions can be reduced. Gamification, as a type of persuasive technology, has the potential to encourage eco-driving by making it competitive and rewarding. We suggest a research plan to construct a preliminary theoretical foundation to map the connection between information communicated to the driver and eco-driving on two dimensions: the type of reward awarded to the driver and the social and community aspects of eco-driving.
Paper | Presenting authors: Inbar

Khaled, Rilla
Itʼs Not Just Whether You Win or Lose: Thoughts on Gamification and Culture
As it is popularly understood, gamification risks becoming synonymous with achievement. Yet achievement is only one potential aspect of games that gamification could focus on, and one that is not necessarily well suited as a motivation for many cultures around the world. In this paper, we argue for a need to draw on cultural motivations in the design of gamification systems and examine some of the issues involved in adopting such an approach.
Paper | Presenting authors: Khaled

Kuikkaniemi, Kai; Holopainen, Jussi; Huotari, Kai
Play Society Research Project
This paper introduces an approach to creating experimental setups for identifying tipping points of playfulness – when something stops being playful or turns into playful. The approach is implemented in a project that has just started, and in the paper we will explain in detail a part of the project hypothesis titled as conceptual analysis of playfulness. The overall goal of the project is to provide guidelines for the media and ICT industry on how to create playful applications and services. The project’s conceptual analysis work package can deliver a wider understanding of playful experiences and the nature of playfulness.
Paper | Presenting authors: Huotari

Laschke, Matthias; Hassenzahl, Marc
Being a “mayor” or a “patron”? The difference between owning badges and telling stories
“The whole life is a game”. This is roughly the claim of some novel services started to offer their users help for getting real life tasks done and overcoming motivational problems. This phenomenon of making life a game was recently called gamification. In this paper we discuss critically the currently employed strategies to motivate and help people to manage real life tasks and ultimately to change their behavior.
Paper | Presenting authors: Laschke

Lee, Hyun-Jean
What could media art learn from recent experimental games?
This paper discusses the lessons that can be learned from recent experimental games for media art practice in order to think of more sophisticated interactive art experiences. Firstly, methodically examined interactivity in games helps to think how to approach sophisticated interactivity. Secondly, the critical and aesthetic attitudes involved in recent game design and practice are useful to think of reflective mode in the interactive experience in media art. Lastly, the wide and rich use of interface technologies helps to consider the inter-relationship between media and technology.
Paper | Presenting authors: Lee

Müller, Florian; Peer, Firaz; Agamanolis, Stefan; Sheridan, Jennifer
Gamification and Exertion
Engaging in exertion activities – these are activities that require intense physical effort from users – is beneficial for physical health. Unfortunately, many exertion activities are often considered not very engaging, and turning them into a game – by means of gamification – has been suggested as an approach to make them more compelling. We discuss design strategies particularly suitable for exertion activities that can facilitate this process and highlight the role of technology based on our experience of designing exertion games. By identifying such strategies, we believe better exertion games can be designed that ultimately results in people profiting more from the associated benefits of exertion.
Paper | Presenting authors: Müller

Narasimhan, Nitya; Chiricescu, Silviu; Vasudevan, Venu
The Gamification of Television: is there life beyond badges?
The television domain is an apt target for gamification given demand for new ways to track, engage and retain viewing audiences. While early applications in social TV show promise, we identify three challenges that need to be addressed. First, television is by nature a lean-back experience; game design must adeptly balance passive attention with active interaction behaviors. Second, a focus on loyalty requires fine-grained interactions to better profile the user; games are ideal for this purpose but are under-utilized in context. Third, badge fatigue is inevitable; we need new ways to evolve experiences to keep viewers interested and challenged. In this paper, we look at how recent trends in companion devices for television viewing provide new tools and opportunities for addressing these concerns. We present some ideas (attention-preserving toolkits, games-with-a-purpose, context-sharing frameworks) that we believe could be a good starting point for related research exploration.
Paper | Presenting authors: Narasimhan

Nikkila, Shawn; Linn, Silvan; Sundaram, Hari; Kelliher, Aisling
Playing in Taskville: Designing a Social Game for the Workplace
Raising awareness and motivating workers in a large collaborative enterprise is a challenging endeavor. In this paper, we briefly describe Taskville, a distributed social media workplace game played by teams on large, public displays. Taskville gamifies the process of routine task management, introducing light competitive play within and between teams. We present the design and implementation of the Taskville game and offer insights and recommendations gained from two pilot studies.
Paper | Presenting authors: Nikkila

Reeves, Byron; Cummings, James J.; Anderson, Dante
Leveraging the engagement of games to change energy behavior
In this paper we present an ongoing research project that seeks to improve home energy behavior by connecting it to gameplay within an online multiplayer game. Overall, the project seeks to examine how the engagement mechanisms common in popular games may be leveraged to promote desired real-world energy behaviors among players. By inputting real world home energy data into a compelling social game, such information may be transformed into a more palatable and relevant form of feedback. Further, by tying energy-friendly real-world behaviors to in-game rewards, users may be incentivized to complete them. A completed game prototype, Power House, is described, and will be available for play during the workshop.
Paper | Presenting authors: Cummings, Anderson

Overview | Call for Papers | Schedule | Papers | Participants | Organizers