Reference: Hamari, J., & Koivisto, J. (2014). Measuring flow in gamification: Dispositional Flow Scale-2. Computers in Human Behavior. DOI: 10.1016/j.chb.2014.07.048
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Summary of results:
- Expectedly, autotelic experience, clear goals, (immediate) feedback, control and challenge-skill balance were the most salient dimensions of flow in gamification (of exercise) whereas time transformation, merging action-awareness, loss of self-consciousness were the least salient.
- Rather than all nine dimensions of flow being reflective of the overall flow, the study suggests that dimensions of flow divide into highly inter-correlated conditions of flow (challenge-skill-balance, clear goals, control, feedback, and autotelic experience) and into possible outcomes from reaching flow (loss of self-consciousness, time transformation, concentration, and merging action-awareness).
The study by Mekler and colleagues doesn’t disprove the undermining potential of gamification: It shows that simplistic debates whether gamification “does” or “doesn’t work” are obsolete – as are mere effect studies. From this point on, without proper theories and mediation studies testing them, gamification research won’t learn anything new or important. Continue reading
Points, levels and leaderboards are often perceived as the bread and butter of gamification. Gabe Zichermann and Christopher Cunningham (2011) even call them “the heart of any gaming system” and “an absolute requirement for all gamified systems”. Game designer Margaret Robertson (2011) on the other hand decries this practice as pointsification and deems it “the thing that is least essential to games”. Similarly, Chris Hecker (2010) warned game designers not to blindly resort to achievements (or points, levels and leaderboards for that matter), because they could stifle players’ intrinsic motivation, that is, their desire to engage with a game (or gamified service). Continue reading
The Gamification Lab and the Hybrid Publishing Lab of Leuphana University just released a nice Creative Commons-licensed edited collection of contributions that are “Rethinking Gamification“. The PDF is freely available online, the print version will follow soon.
We are inviting submissions to a special issue of Computers in Human Behavior, titled “Gamification: Gameful Design, Research, and Applications”. Note that we have extended the deadline to July 25, but are reviewing submissions as they come in. Continue reading
We are pleased to invite you to submit a chapter for our book on gamification and business! This is probably one of the first edited books on this subject based on critical and analytical perspectives. It will appear with Routledge in 2015. Continue reading